Higher Education Enrollment & Its Problems

SOME KEY ACHIEVEMENTS

  • The number of universities has grown more than six times in the last four decades.
  • India has more than 33,000 colleges with one third of colleges having been set up in the last five years
  • India ranks second in the world in terms of enrollment of students in higher education institutions. Higher Education Enrollment (China-1st and USA-3rd)

SOME FACTS ABOUT INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION                         Higher Education Enrollment & Its Problems

  • Private institutions lead in terms of number of institutions and student enrollment
  • While general courses account for the bulk of enrollment, professional courses are growing significantly faster.
  • Distance education has emerged as a cost-effective manner of enhancing access to higher education in India.
  • Degree courses are preferred over diploma courses, with maximum enrollment in undergraduate degree programs.

ROLE OF VARIOUS ACTORS & THEIR CONTRIBUTION

1. PRIVATE SECTOR :

  • Share of unaided private institutions in the total number of institutions has reached two-thirds.
  • The unaided private sector accounted for around 60% of total enrollment in 2012.
  • Between 2007 and 2012, the number of private institutions grew faster than the number of government institutions.
  • State private universities have witnessed an annual growth of 33.8% since 1995.

2. GOVERNMENT : (according to Eleventh five year plan (2007-2012)

  • aims Inclusive growth of higher education.
  • Planned expenditure in higher education (INR billion): 849.4 (technical + vocational education)
  • Annual enrollment growth: 9.3%
  • The government has planned expenditure of INR 1,107 billion on higher education during the Twelfth Five Year plan, 1.3 times higher than the planned expenditure in Eleventh plan.

CHALLENGES CONTINUING TO PLAGUE THE SECTOR

1. Expansion

India’s Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) of 16% was much below the world average of 27% as well as below than emerging countries like China(26%) and Brazil (36%) in 2010.

2. Equity

There is wide disparity in the GER of higher education across states and the Gross Attendance Ratio (GAR) in urban and rural areas, and gender and community wise.

3. Excellence

  • Faculty shortage – 40% and 35% shortage of faculty in state and central universities, respectively
  • Accredited institutions – 62% of universities and 90% of colleges being average or below average in 2010 on the basis of their NAAC accreditation
  • Low citation impact – India’s relative citation impact being half the world average
  • Employers are finding it difficult to find the right talent

KEY INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS EXCELLENCE ISSUE

1. Infrastructure and technology

  • Establishing meta universities.
  • Strengthening National Mission on use of information and communication (ICT)
  • Technical Education Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP) to be started
  • Shifting from annual to semester examination system
  • Promoting holistic undergraduate program’s
  • Creating active learning environment

2. Faculty

  • Overcoming faculty shortages by recruiting more number of faculty members.
  • Undertaking faculty training and development

3. Accreditation

  • Revamping the accreditation system

4. Internationalization

  • Internationalization of higher education

5. Research and innovation

  • Launching of research-focused institutions
  • Promoting excellence in basic sciences
  • Boosting entrepreneurship
  • Enhancing innovation capacity
  • Encouraging innovation

KEY INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS EXPANSION ISSUE

1. Central institutes to become the epitome of quality

  • Focus on research
  • Redevelopment of existing institutes
  • Emergence of innovation clusters
  • Central institutes to lead by example

2. State higher education systems to be strengthened Increase in Central funding and strategic shift in support to states

3. Private sector investments to be encouraged

  • New forms of entry
  • Infusion of capital
  • Development of knowledge clusters/hubs

4. Skill-based and distance learning

  • Expansion of skill-based courses
  • Expansion of distance learning

KEY INITIATIVES TO ADDRESS EQUITY ISSUE

1. Increased funding support

  • Additional funding for disadvantaged student group
  • Setting up of a guarantee corpus and Credit Guarantee Trust

2. Differential response to address dimensions of inequalities

  • More colleges in minority concentrated areas
  • Targeted schemes for different communities/groups

3. Consolidation of several schemes and initiatives Clubbing schemes under one umbrella

4. Other initiatives

  • ‘Index of disadvantage’ for new scholarship schemes
  • Monitoring performance through “Diversity index”
  • Promoting Indian languages

SOME BILLS TO IMPROVE QUALITY AND TRANSPARENCY IN HIGHER EDUCAITON

Higher Education and Research Bill, 2011

The Bill aims to consolidate multiple regulations and improve transparency by the creation of a single super regulator, the National Commission for Higher Education and Research, in the place of existing regulators such as the UGC and AICTE.

The National Academic Depository Bill, 2011

The Bill seeks to establish a national database of academic awards in electronic format through an identified and registered depository.

The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010

The Bill aims to make accreditation and rating of all higher education institutions mandatory in India.

The National Academic Depository Bill, 2011

The Bill seeks to establish a national database of academic awards in electronic format through an identified and registered depository.

Foreign Educational Institutions Bill, 2010

The Bill aims to regulate the entry and operation of foreign institutes in India. The Bill is a key legislation to encourage private sector participation in India, given the absence of any regulatory framework for FEIs

The Educational Tribunal Bill, 2010

The Bill aims to expedite and enable more effective litigation involving students, teachers, employees and the management of institutions.

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